Thomas,R. and Davidson,P.(2012): Water in granite and pegmatite-forming melts. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 32-46.


 In this paper we have compiled water concentration data obtained from melt inclusion in minerals, mostly quartz and topaz, from granites and pegmatites. A small number of data come from analysis of natural glasses. About 4600 melt inclusions are from granites, and about 2100 melt inclusions are from pegmatites. Another 4159 values are from melt inclusions and glasses of rocks with more than 66% (g/g) SiO2 are added belonging to a recent compilation. The total of 10,859 melt inclusions provides a statistically significant basis from which to derive some conclusions. Generally, the water concentration in granite melt inclusion is <10% (g/g) with three maxima at 4.0±1.3, 5.9±1.2, and 8.1±1.1% (g/g) water. For pegmatites, a larger range of water contents was found: from 2 to more than 50% (g/g) water with two distinct maxima at 10.5±8.1 and 26.2±14.3% (g/g). We show that the great spread and the generally high water content of the pegmatite-forming melts (as sampled by melt inclusions) are the result of melt-melt immiscibility processes connected with the formation of conjugate melt fraction with contrasting physical and chemical characteristics, which have also a major influence on the element partitioning between such fractions. In this paper we also discuss viscosity as an important transport property of natural silicate melts, and we show that due to high primary water concentration in the pegmatite-forming melts their viscosity is very low over a wide range of temperatures. In the case of water-rich peralkaline melt fractions the viscosity can decrease still further. Together these suggest that liquidus under cooling as the major cause of pegmatite textures is redundant. Furthermore we demonstrate that the effect of boron, carbonates and bicarbonates on pegmatite melts, these two last mostly ignored in the past, have a large influence on the melt structure and they enable pegmatite formation in the absence of the usual discussed fluxing elements, such as F and P.

Keywords: Granitic melts; Pegmatite-forming melts; Water; Raman spectroscopy; Melt inclusion』

1. Introduction
2. Previous studies of water content of melt inclusions in minerals of granite and pegmatites
 2.1. Raman spectroscopy
 2.2. Some observations on the Raman characteristics of water in very water-rich glasses
3. Results
4. Interpretation of inclusion data
5. Discussion
 5.1. Implications of the results obtained from MI
 5.2. Viscosity - granitic melt versus pegmatite-forming melt - consequences of water content
 5.3. Phase separation
 5.4. Melt-melt-fluid immiscibility and peralkaline melt fraction
 5.5. Enrichment of carbonates and alkali elements
 5.6. Enrichment of rare elements
 5.7. Petrological implications and conjectures
6. Conclusions