Ivanova,A.V., Machulina,S.A. and Zaitseva,L.B.(2012): Epochs of the formation of amber and its distribution in nature. Lithology and Mineral Resources, 47(1), 18-22.


 Distribution and genesis of amber-type resins are discussed. The kerogen evolution diagram (atomic ratios of three key elements: carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen) has been used for comparing different-age fossil resins and refining their genesis and the results of postdiagenetic effects on them. Paleozoic and Meso-Cenozoic fossil resins occupy different areas in the mentioned diagram, suggesting a higher transformation degree of resins from the Paleozoic sediments and different types of resin-producing vegetation in the Paleozoic and Meso-Cenozoic. Distribution of data points on the plot can provide insight into postdiagenetic processes (magmatism, weathering) responsible for the transformation of some fossil resins. Epochs of intense succinosis and large-scale amber appearance are attributed to global events that impaired stable conditions for the growth of resin-generating forest vegetation.』