Sterflinger,K.(2000): Fungi as geologic agents. Geomicrobiology Journal, 17, 97-124.


 Although many studies on fungi and geological processes have been published in recent years, books and congress proceedings on geomicrobiology focus mainly on prokaryotes and algae. Therefore, it is the aim of this review to summarize data on the fungal impact on geological processes. These processes include the alteration and weathering of rock and minerals, the accumulation of metals, and the conversion of fossil organic carbon. Fossil records and fungi in subsurface environments are also discussed. This article especially emphasizes the role of epi- and endolithic black meristematic fungi, discussing their deteriorative potential on rock as well as their taxonomy and phylogeny. Moreover, the impact of fungi on weathering of monuments and building materials is described and new methods to study fungi-material interactions are presented. The data summarized here show that ‘geomycology’ is a highly interesting discipline in view of basic geological research, as well as biotechnological application.』


Fungal attack on minerals
 Alteration of carbonates
 Dissolution and precipitation of metal ions
 Degradation of silicates
 Sulfur and phosphate
 Fungi as biosorbents for metal accumulation
Fungal impact on fossil organic carbon
Fossilized fungi
Mechanical forces
Sudsurface fungi
Weathering of monuments and buildings by fungal activity
Ecophysiology of epi- and endolithic meristematic fungi
Phylogeny and taxonomy of epi- and endolithic meristematic fungi
Methods for studying fungi in the geosphere

FIGURE 1 (A) SEM micrograph of fungal hyphae attached to mineral particles of a sandstone surface. (B) Etching of a calcium carbonate crystal by a fungal hyphae. (C) Fungal growth between the crystals of quartz dissolves the carbonatic binding matrix and results in granular disintegration (bar = 800 μm). (D) Growth margin of a self-overgrowing bryozoan species attacked by fungal mycelium. The left side shows the older part of the bryozoan colony being decayed by the fungi; the right part shows the new bryozoan layer (photo: Joachim Scholz with kind permission). (E) White fungal mycelia are attached to a red medieval glass surface (bar = 1.5 mm). (F) Crater-shaped lesions within the gel layer of a medieval glass surface are caused by black fungal colonies visible in the lesions (bar = 380μm).

図1(A)砂岩表面の鉱物粒子に付着した菌糸のSEM写真。(B)菌糸による炭酸カルシウム結晶の腐食。(C)石英結晶間での菌糸の成長は、炭酸質の結合基質を溶解し、粒子状の分解を生じる(バーの長さ=800μm)。(D)菌糸に攻撃された自己増殖する苔虫類の成長縁。左側は、菌類に腐敗させられた苔虫類のコロニーの古い部分を示す;右側は、新しい苔虫類の層を示す(写真:Joachim Scholz氏の許可による)。(E)白い菌糸体は赤色の中世のガラス表面に付着している(バー=1.5mm)。(F)中世のガラス表面のゲル層内部のクレーター形の傷は、傷内部に見える黒色菌類コロニーにより生じている(バー=380μm)。

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