van Hees,P.A.W., Jones,D.L., Jentschke,G. and Godbold,D.L.(2004): Mobilization of aluminium, iron and silicon by Picea abies and ectomycorrhizas in a forest soil. European Journal of Soil Science, 55, 101-111.



 Weathering of soil minerals is a key determinant of ground and surface water quality and is also important in pedogenic and rhizosphere processes. The relative importance of biotic and abiotic studies in mineral weathering, however, is poorly understood. We investigated the impact of Picea abies seedlings, an ectomycorrhizal fungus and humic acid on the solubilization of aluminium (Al), iron (Fe) and silicon (Si) in an E horizon forest soil over 10 months. Elemental budgets were constructed based upon losses in drainage water, accumulation in plants and changes in the pools of exchangeable ions. Plants and mycorrhizas or both had a significant effect on the total amounts of Al, Fe and Si mobilized from the soil. Significantly larger amounts of Al and Fe were recovered in plants than those lost in drainage water, whereas the opposite trend was true for Si. The continual addition of dissolved organic matter to the soil in the form of humic acid had an effect only on mobilization of Fe, which increased due to larger plant uptake and an increase in the exchangeable pool. The mobilization of Fe and Si were positively correlated with hyphal length, soil respiration and concentrations of oxalate in the soil solution, and mobilization of Al was strongly correlated with plant weight. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that most fungal hyphae were associated with mineral surfaces with little occupation of cracks and micropores within mineral grains. Evidently ectomycorrhizas have important impacts on mineral dissolution and the chemistry of forest soils.』



Materials and methods
 Soil sampling and pretreatment
 Plant and mycorrhizal preculture
 Soil-sand culture system and sampling of drainage water
 Experimental design
 Analysis of plant material
 Selective extractions ad analysis
 Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies
 Calculations and statistics
Results and discussion
 Growth rate and Al, Fe and Si concentrations in plant tissue
 Mobilization of Al,Fe and Si in drainage water
 Accumulation of Al, Fe and Si in plants
 Soil extractions
 Total mobilization of Si, Fe ad Al and correlations
 Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies
 Impact of ectomycorrhizas on soil processes