Six hundred and sixty-five soil samples were taken from Changxing County in Zhejiang Province, China, to characterize the spatial variability of Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, As and Cr. The geostatistics and geographic information system (GIS) techniques were applied, and the ordinary kriging and lognormal kriging were used to map the spatial patterns of the six heavy metals. Hg, Pb, Cu and As were fitted to the spherical model with a range of 85.75, 82.32, 86.10, and 23.17 km, respectively. Cr was fitted to the exponential model with a range of 6.27 km, and Cd was fitted to the linear model with a range of 37.66 km. Both Pb and Cu had strong spatial dependence due to the effects of natural factors including parent materials, topography and soil type. Hg, Cd, Cr and As had, however, moderate spatial dependence, indicating an involvement of human factors. Meanwhile, based on the comparison between the original data and the guide values of the six metals, the disjunctive kriging technique was used to quantify their pollution risks. The results showed that only Cd and Hg exhibited pollution risks in the study area. The pollution source evaluated was closely corresponded with the real discharge of industrial production and the application of organomercury pesticides. The results of this study provide insight into risk assessment of environmental pollution and decision making for agricultural production and industrial adjustment of building materials.
Keywords: Geostatistics; Heavy metals; Spatial variability; Geographic information system』
Material and methods
Soil sampling and analysis
Descriptive parameters and probability distribution of the raw data set
Spatial distributions and risk assessment