American Association of Petroleum Geologists(2011): Unconventional energy resources: 2011 review. Natural Resources Research, 20(4), 279-328.


 This report contains nine unconventional energy resource commodity summaries prepared by committees of the Energy Minerals Division (EMD) of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Unconventional energy resources, as used in this report, are those energy resources that do not occur in discrete oil or gas reservoirs held in structural or stratigraphic traps in sedimentary basins. These resources include coal, coalbed methane, gas hydrates, tight gas sands, gas shale and shale oil, geothermal resources, oil sands, oil shale, and uranium resources. Current U.S. and global research and development activities are summarized for each unconventional energy commodity in the topical sections of this report. Coal and uranium are expected to supply a significant portion of the world's energy mix in coming years. Coalbed methane continues to supply about 9% of the U.S. gas production and exploration is expanding in other countries. Recently, natural gas produced from shale and low-permeability (tight) sandstone has made a significant contribution to the energy supply of the United States and is an increasing target for exploration around the world. In addition, oil from shale and heavy oil from sandstone are a new exploration focus in many area (including the Green River area of Wyoming and northern Alberta). In recent years, research in the areas of geothermal energy sources and gas hydrates has continued to advance. Reviews of the current research and the stages of development of these unconventional energy resources are described in the various sections of this report.

Key Words: Coal; Coalbed methane; Gas hydrates; Tight gas sands; Gas shale and shale oil; Geothermal; Oil sands; Oil shale; Uranium; Unconventional energy resources.』

 Peter D. Waewick
  World production and consumption
  U.S. production and consumption
  Clean coal
  Underground coal gasification
Coalbed methane
Gas hydrate
Tight gas sands
  Dew-Minns Creak Field
  Jonah Field
  Mamm Creek Field
  Wamsutter Field
Gas shale/shale oil
 N.S.Fishman, s.R.Bereskin, K.A.Bowker, B.J.Cartdott, T.C.Chidsey,Jr., R.F.Dubiel, C.B.Enomoto, W.B.Harrison, D.M.Jarvie, C.L.Jenkins, J.A.LeFever, Peng Ki, J.N.McCracken, C.D.Morgan, S.H.Nordeng, R.E.Nyahay, Steven Schamel, R.L.Summer, L.L.Wray
   Antrim Shale
   Bakken Formation
   Barnett Shale
   Chattanooga Shale
   Eagle Ford Shale
   Fayetteville Shale
   Gothic Shale
   Haynesville and Bossier Shales
   Mancos Shale
   Marcellus Shale
   New Albany Shale
   Utica Shale
   Woodford Shale
   Canadian Shales
   European Shales
  DOE funding
  Geothermal and the oil and gas industry
  The future
Oil sands
 D.K.Higley, F.J.Hein
Oil shale developments
  U.S. activity
  International activity
  Information resources
Uranium and nuclear minerals - an update
 M..D.Campbell, M.A.Wiley
  U.S. uranium production
  Uranium prices
  U.S. nuclear power plant plans
  U.S. uranium reserves/resources
  Uranium: emphasis on supply
  World uranium resources
Web links for oil sands/heavy oil organizations and publications