Connoly,D.(2011): The global energy challenge. University of Limerick, 26p.


Table of contents
1. Introduction
2. Climate change
3. Energy production
4. Security of supply
5. Renewable energy

6. Summary
 Climate change is already being witnessed around the global through increasing temperatures, rising sea levels, and decreasing snow cover. However, these changes are expected to intensify as more GHG emissions are emitted to the atmosphere. After analysing the source of GHG emissions in the atmosphere, it is evident that 83% of total GHG emissions are related to energy, primarily the burning of fossil fuels. Therefore, to minimise the impact of any future climate changes, the energy sector needs to be decarbonised. After analysing the current and projected trends in global energy production, it is clear that the world's dependence on fossil fuels will increase and hence, GHG emissions will also increase. In addition, due to the scale of the world's fossil fuel dependence it is currently predicted that oil and gas resources will have depleted within the next century. Therefore, from both an environmental and a sustainability perspective, it is essential that the world eradicates its addiction to fossil fuels.
 Renewable energy is one potential solution to this global problem. This investigation illustrates that renewable technologies are now competitive with fossil fuel alternatives and there is a significant renewable resource spread across the entire globe.』

[9] Sorrell,S., Miller,R., Bentley,R. and Speirs,J.(2010): Oil futures: A comparison of global supply forecasts. Energy Policy, 38(9), 4990-5003.
[12] Longwell,H.(2002): The future of the oil and gas industry: Past approaches, new challenges. World Energy, 5(23), 100-104.
[14] Graβl,H., Kokott,J., Kulessa,M., Luther,L., Nuscheler,F., Sauerborn,R., Schellnhuber,H.J., Schubert,R. and Schlze,E.D.(2003): Climate protection strategies for the 21st century: Kyoto and beyond. German Advisory Council on Global Change, Available from:
[15] Nakicenovic,N. and Riahi,K.(2003): Models runs with MESSAGE in the context of the further development of the Kyoto-protocol. German Advisory Council on global change, 2003. Available from:

Figure 11: Estimated years by various organisations for the year of peak oil [9]. (URR = Ultimately Recoverable Resource)

Figure 12: Historical discovery and consumption of fossil fuel [12].

Figure 20: Evolution of energy consumption from 1850 to 1990, with various projections up to 2100 [14, 15].

Connoly(2011)による『The global energy challenge』から