Ozturk,I., Aslan,A. and Kalyoncu,H.(2010): Energy consumption and economic growth relationship: evidence from panel data for low and middle income countries. Energy Policy, 38, 4422-4428.


 This paper uses the panel data of energy consumption (EC) and economic growth (GDP) for 51 countries from 1971 to 2005. These countries are divided into three groups: low income group, lower middle income group and upper middle income group countries. Firstly, a relationship between energy consumption and economic growth is investigated by employing Pedroni (1999) panel cointegration method. Secondly, panel causality test is applied to investigate the way of causality between the energy consumption and economic growth. Finally, we test whether there is a strong or weak relationship between these variables by using Pedroni (2001) method. The empirical results of this study are as follows: i) Energy consumption and GDP are cointegrated for all three income group countries. ii) The panel causality test results reveal that there is long-run Granger causality running from GDP to EC for low income countries and there is bidirectional causality between EC and GDP for middle income countries. iii) The estimated cointegration factor, β, is not close to 1. In other words, no strong relation is found between energy consumption and economic growth for all income groups considered in this study. The findings of this study have important policy implications and it shows that this issue still deserves further attention in future research.

Keywords: Energy consumption; Economic growth; Panel data』

1. Introduction
2. Data and methodology
3. Empirical results
 3.1. Panel unit root analysis
 3.2. Panel cointegration analysis
 3.3. Panel causality analysis
 3.4. Panel FMOLS and DOLS estimates
4. Conclusion and policy implications