International Energy Agency(2009): Key
World Energy Statistics 2009. 82p.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ENERGY BALANCES 4
ENERGY INDICATORS 8
CONVERSION FACTORS 9
G L O S S A R Y
- Coal/peat Coal/peat includes all coal, both primary
(including hard coal and lignite/brown coal) and derived fuels
(including patent fuel, coke
oven coke, gas coke, BKB, coke oven gas, blast furnace gas and
oxygen steel furnace gas). Peat is also included in this category.
- Crude oil Crude oil comprises crude oil, natural gas
liquids, refinery feedstocks and additives as well as other hydrocarbons.
- Petroleum products Petroleum products comprises refinery
gas, ethane, LPG, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, jet fuels,
kerosene, gas/diesel oil, heavy fuel oil, naphtha, white spirit,
lubricants, bitumen, paraffin waxes, petroleum coke and other
- Gas Gas includes natural gas (excluding natural gas
liquids) and gas works gas. The latter appears as a positive
figure in the "gas works"
row but is not part of indigenous production.
- Nuclear Nuclear shows the primary heat equivalent
of the electricity produced by a nuclear power plant with an
efficiency of 33 per cent.
- Hydro Hydro shows the energy content of the electricity
produced in hydro power plants. Hydro output excludes output
- Combustible renewables & waste Combustible renewables
& waste comprises solid biomass, liquid biomass, biogas,
industrial waste and municipal waste. Biomass is defined as any
plant matter used directly as fuel or converted into fuels (e.g.
charcoal) or electricity and/or heat. Included here are wood,
vegetal waste (including wood waste and crops used for energy
production), ethanol, animal materials/wastes and sulfite lyes.
Municipal waste comprises wastes produced by the residential,
commercial and public service sectors that are collected by local
authorities for disposal in a central location for the production
of heat and/or power.
- Other Other includes geothermal, solar, wind, tide/wave/ocean
energy, electricity and heat. Unless the actual efficiency of
process is known, the quantity of geothermal energy entering
electricity generation is inferred from the electricity production
geothermal plants assuming an average thermal efficiency of 10
per cent. For solar, wind and tide/wave/ocean energy, the quantities
entering electricity generation are equal to the electrical energy
generated. Direct use of geothermal and solar heat is also included
here. Electricity is accounted for at the same heat value as
electricity in final consumption (i.e. 1 GWh = 0.000086 Mtoe).
heat that is produced for sale and is accounted for in the transformation
- Production Production is the production of primary
energy, i.e. hard coal, lignite/brown coal, peat, crude oil,
NGLs, natural gas, combustible
renewables and waste, nuclear, hydro, geothermal, solar and the
heat from heat pumps that is extracted from the ambient
environment. Production is calculated after removal of impurities.
- Imports and exports Imports and exports comprise amounts
having crossed the national territorial boundaries of the country,
whether or not customs clearance has taken place.
a) Oil and gas
Quantities of crude oil and oil products imported or exported
under processing agreements (i.e. refining on account) are included.
Quantities of oil in transit are excluded. Crude oil, NGL and
natural gas are reported as coming from the country of origin;
refinery feedstocks and oil products are reported as coming from
the country of last consignment. Re-exports of oil imported for
processing within bonded areas are shown as exports of product
from the processing country to the final destination.
Imports and exports comprise the amount of fuels obtained from
or supplied to other countries, whether or not there is an economic
or customs union between the relevant countries. Coal in transit
is not included.
Amounts are considered as imported or exported when they have
crossed the national territorial boundaries of the country.
- International marine bunkers International marine
bunkers covers those quantities delivered to ships of all flags
that are engaged in international navigation. The international
navigation may take place at sea, on inland lakes and waterways,
and in coastal waters. Consumption by ships engaged in domestic
navigation is excluded. The domestic/international split is determined
on the basis of port of departure and port of arrival, and not
by the flag or nationality of the ship. Consumption by fishing
vessels and by military forces is also excluded.
- International aviation bunkers International aviation
bunkers covers deliveries of aviation fuels to aircraft for international
aviation. Fuels used by airlines for their road vehicles are
excluded. The domestic/international split should be determined
on the basis of departure and landing locations and not by the
nationality of the airline. For many countries this incorrectly
excludes fuel used by domestically owned carriers for their international
- Stock changes Stock changes reflects the difference
between opening stock levels on the first day of the year and
closing levels on the last day of the year of stocks on national
territory held by producers, importers, energy transformation
industries and large consumers.
A stock build is shown as a negative number, and a stock draw
as a positive number.
- Total primary energy supply (TPES) Total primary energy
supply (TPES) is made up of production + imports - exports -
international marine bunkers . international aviation bunkers
± stock changes. For the world total, international marine bunkers
and international aviation bunkers are not subtracted from TPES.
- Transfers Transfers includes both interproduct transfers,
products transferred and recycled products.
- Statistical differences Statistical differences includes
the sum of the unexplained statistical differences for individual
fuels, as they appear in the basic energy statistics. It also
includes the statistical differences that arise because of the
variety of conversion factors in the coal
and oil columns.
- Electricity plants Electricity plants refers to plants
which are designed to produce electricity only. If one or more
units of the plant is a CHP unit (and the inputs and outputs
can not be distinguished on a unit basis) then the whole plant
is designated as a CHP plant. Both main
activity producers and autoproducer plants are included here.
- Combined heat and power plants Combined heat and power
plants refers to plants which are designed to produce both heat
and electricity, sometimes referred as co-generation power stations.
If possible, fuel inputs and electricity/heat outputs are on
a unit basis rather than on a plant basis. However, if data are
not available on a unit basis, the convention for defining a
CHP plant noted above is adopted. Both
main activity producers and autoproducer plants are included
- Heat plants Heat plants refers to plants (including
heat pumps and electric boilers) designed to produce heat only,
which is sold to a third
party under the provisions of a contract. Both main activity
producers and autoproducer plants are included here.
- Gas works Gas works is treated similarly to electricity
generation, with the quantity produced appearing as a positive
figure in the gas
column, inputs as negative entries in the coal and petroleum
products columns, and conversion losses appearing in the total
- Petroleum refineries Petroleum refineries shows the
use of primary energy for the manufacture of finished petroleum
products and the
corresponding output. Thus, the total reflects transformation
losses. In certain cases the data in the total column are positive
numbers. This can be due to either problems in the primary refinery
balance or to the fact that the IEA uses regional net calorific
values for the petroleum products.
- Coal transformation Coal transformation contains losses
in transformation of coal from primary to secondary fuels and
from secondary to tertiary fuels (hard coal to coke, coke to
blast furnace gas, lignite to BKB, etc.).
- Liquefaction Liquefaction includes diverse liquefaction
processes, such as coal liquefaction plants and gas-to-liquid
- Other transformation Other transformation covers non-specified
transformation not shown elsewhere. It also includes backflows
- Own use Own use contains the primary and secondary
energy consumed by transformation industries for heating, pumping,
lighting purposes [International Standard Industrial Classification
(ISIC) Divisions 10-12, 23 and 40]. These quantities are shown
as negative figures. Included here are, for example, coal mines'
own use of energy, power plants' own consumption (which includes
net electricity consumed for pumped storage), and energy used
for oil and gas extraction.
- Distribution and transmission losses Distribution
and transmission losses includes losses in gas distribution,
electricity transmission and coal transport.
- Total final consumption (TFC) Total final consumption
(TFC) is the sum of consumption by the different end-use sectors.
Backflows from the petrochemical industry are not included in
- Industry sector Industry sector consumption is specified
in the following subsectors (energy used for transport by industry
is not included here but reported under transport):
・Iron and steel industry [ISIC Group 271 and Class 2731];
・Chemical and petrochemical industry [ISIC Division 24] excluding
・Non-ferrous metals basic industries [ISIC Group 272 and Class
・Non-metallic mineral products such as glass, ceramic, cement,
etc. [ISIC Division 26];
・Transport equipment [ISIC Divisions 34 and 35];
・Machinery comprises fabricated metal products, machinery and
equipment other than transport equipment [ISIC Divisions 28 to
・Mining (excluding fuels) and quarrying [ISIC Divisions 13 and
・Food and tobacco [ISIC Divisions 15 and 16];
・Paper, pulp and printing [ISIC Divisions 21 and 22];
・Wood and wood products (other than pulp and paper) [ISIC Division
・Construction [ISIC Division 45];
・Textile and leather [ISIC Divisions 17 to 19];
・Non-specified (any manufacturing industry not included above)
[ISIC Divisions 25, 33, 36 and 37].
- Transport sector Transport sector includes all fuels
used for transport [ISIC Divisions 60 to 62]. It includes transport
in the industry sector
and covers road, railway, domestic aviation, domestic navigation,
fuels used for transport of materials by pipeline and non-specified
transport. Fuel used for ocean, coastal and inland fishing should
be included in fishing (other sectors). Please note that international
marine bunkers and international aviation bunkers are also included
here for world total.
- Other sectors Other sectors covers residential, commercial
and public services [ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75,
80, 85, 90-93, 95 and 99], agriculture/forestry [ISIC Divisions
01 and 02], fishing [ISIC Division 05] and non-specified consumption.
- Non-energy use Non-energy use covers those fuels that
are used as raw materials in the different sectors and are not
consumed as a
fuel or transformed into another fuel. Non-energy use also includes
petrochemical feedstocks. Non-energy use is shown separately
in final consumption under the heading non-energy use.
billion cubic metres
million British thermal units
gross calorific value
million tonnes of oil equivalent
purchasing power parity
thousand barrels per calendar day
metric ton = tonne = 1000 kg
tonne of oil equivalent = 107 kcal
World Energy Outlook 2009
What will the credit crunch and economic recession mean for energy
markets? Will investment cutbacks lead us towards a supply crunch
years down the line? How could the transition to a clean global
energy system be financed?
These are just three of the questions that World Energy Outlook
2009 addresses. Incorporating recent developments in energy
and environmental policy, this year’s Outlook draws on the latest
data reflecting the impact of the global financial and economic
crisis and takes
into account the ongoing gyrations in energy prices. The resulting
analysis presents a full update of energy projections through
fuel by fuel and with more country-level detail than ever before.
WEO-2009 puts the spotlight on three special topics:
Financing energy investment under a post-2012 climate framework.
What policy action is needed to increase deployment of new energy
technologies? Where are the most cost-effective opportunities
mitigation? This ground-breaking analysis, which zooms in on the
crucial period through to 2020, provides a robust quantitative
basis for United
Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change negotiations in
the leadup to the crucial climate meeting in Copenhagen in December
Prospects for global natural gas markets. How hard will
the credit crisis and economic recession hit gas demand and investment
in gas supply? How will geology and geo-politics affect future
gas supplies? Through field-by-field analysis of production trends
of the world’s key gas fields, and a bottom-up analysis of upstream
costs and investment, WEO-2009 takes a hard look at future global
Energy trends in Southeast Asia. In recognition of the
growing influence Southeast Asia is having on global energy markets,
includes an in-depth analysis of this fast-growing region.
The annual WEO report . the flagship publication of the IEA .
is widely recognised as the most authoritative source of global
energy projections and
analysis. Governments and industry around the world have come
to rely on the WEO to provide a consistent basis on which they
can formulate policies and design business plans. The report also
plays a key role in raising public awareness of the key energy
challenges the world is facing.