World Energy Councili2007jFSurvey of Energy Resources 2007D600pD


Contents

SER Committee Membership 2007 i
Foreword ii
Introduction iii
Overview v
Contents ix

1. Coal 1
2. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Liquids 41
3. Oil Shale 93
4. Natural Bitumen
and Extra-Heavy Oil 119
5. Natural Gas 145
6. Part I: Uranium 195
6. Part II: Nuclear 235
7. Hydropower 271
8. Peat 315
9. Bioenergy 333
10. Solar Energy 381
11. Geothermal Energy 427
12. Wind Energy 479
13. Tidal Energy 525
14. Wave Energy 543
15. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion 565

Abbreviations and Acronyms 583
Conversion Factors and Energy
Equivalents 586


Introduction

This 21st WEC Survey of Energy Resources contains a chapter for each energy resource, ranging from the conventional fossil fuels to the renewables, both new and traditional. Generally, the coverage of each resource comprises a Commentary by a leading expert in the field, followed by Definitions, Tables and Country Notes. The tables summarise the worldwide resources, reserves, production and consumption of fossil fuels and comparable data for non-fossil energy sources, as applicable. The Country Notes aim to highlight the main features of the resource and its utilisation.
¡Reserves/Resources - where relevant, tables of fossil fuels provide reserve statistics (covered globally from WEC and non-WEC sources) and amounts in place (as reported by the WEC Member Committees);
¡Tabulations - data tables are arranged on a standard regional basis throughout;
¡Units - where relevant, data have been provided in alternative units (cubic feet as well as cubic metres, barrels as well as tonnes) in order to facilitate use of survey data in an industry context;
¡References and Sources - as far as possible, these have been consolidated in introductory notes to the data tables and country notes, or appended to the commentaries on each resource.

Any review of energy resources is critically dependent upon the availability of data and reliable, comprehensive information does not always exist. While the basis of the compilation is the input provided by the WEC Member Committees, completion necessitates recourse to a multitude of national and international sources and, in some cases, to estimation. Difficulties in obtaining information continue to be compounded by trends in the energy sector. As further deregulation and privatisation take place, the availability of data tends to be reduced as some data-reporting channels may be lost or specific items become confidential. Moreover, problems in the quantification of energy resources persist, in particular for those universally-found resources: solar energy, wind power and bioenergy, owing to their evolutionary status and generally decentralised nature.

Notwithstanding the efforts of the UN/ECE Ad Hoc Group of Experts to codify and standardise the terminology of reserves and resources reporting (UN Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Resources), it remains a fact that, at the present time, almost every country that possesses significant amounts of mineral resources has developed its own unique set of expressions and definitions. Whilst the UN continues its work on harmonisation of the terminology, it will take some considerable time before the theory can be applied globally. It is customary for nationallevel reserves and resources to be reassessed only infrequently. The improvement in reporting will thus occur gradually over a period of time as reassessments are undertaken and subsequently reported on a codified basis. In the meantime, the resources and reserves specified
in the present Survey conform as far as possible with the established definitions specified by the WEC. It is a matter of judgement for each member country to determine which, among the available assessments of resources and reserves, best meet these definitions. A similar approach has been followed for non-reporting countries, for which the Editors have selected the levels of reserves which, in their opinion, are most appropriate.

This Survey is testament to the effect of a raised oil price and increasing concern with aspects of climate change and energy sustainability.
Resources and technologies that were previously uneconomic to develop are now seeing enhanced R&D, with many schemes being implemented or approaching fruition.

Particular points of emphasis in the present Survey:
¡ coverage of fossil fuel reserves, particularly in respect of coal, has been improved by establishing the recoverable portion of the in-place quantities in a number of countries where this had not been previously reported;
¡ wood energy has been included with other biofuels;
¡ coverage of oil shale, natural bitumen, solar/PV, wind energy and the marine technologies has been expanded and improved to reflect their changing prospects.

As Editors, we strive to develop and maintain contacts in the energy world and hope that in time the availability of data will not only improve
but expand to cover those energy resources that presently go unrecorded (or under-recorded).

We are grateful to all those who have helped to produce this Survey: we extend our thanks to the WEC Member Committees, to the authors of
the Commentaries, to Nada Zupanc, Bob Schock and the Studies Committee for guiding the production of the Survey and to Valli Moosa
for contributing the Overview.

Judy Trinnaman and Alan Clarke
Editors


Overview

gEnergy is essential for development, yet two billion people currently go without, condemning them to remain in the poverty trap. We need to make clean energy supplies accessible and affordable. We need to increase the use of renewable energy sources and improve energy efficiency. And we must not flinch from addressing the issue of over consumption - the fact that people in the developed countries use far more energy
per capita than those in the developing worldh (Kofi Annan, Secretary General, United Nations.)

Introduction

The availability of energy resources is of paramount importance to society. This new World Energy Council Survey of Energy Resources addresses the question of future availability at a critical time in the development of global economies and the people who depend on them. The fundamental dilemma facing us is that energy is a vital ingredient for growth and sustainable development, and for the vast majority of economic activities, but that energy production and use contribute to global warming. The greatest challenge facing the energy sector today is how to meet rising demand for energy, whilst at the same time reducing our emissions of greenhouse gases. Climate change is undoubtedly an imperative which must be
addressed with a sense of urgency. We need to find new and innovative ways of addressing mitigation of greenhouse gases as well as adapting to changes in the climate. Given that the energy sector is critical to the functioning of most economies, is long term in nature and is very vulnerable to the negative impacts of climate change, this issue should be at the top of everyonefs agenda.

Resources are the backbone of every economy. In using resources and transforming them, capital stocks are built up which add to the wealth of present and future generations. However, the dimensions of our current resource use are such that the chances of future generations having access to their fair share of scarce resources are endangered. We therefore need to ensure the sustainable use of our natural resources through the creation of a longterm sustainable base and much greater focus throughout the energy value chain.

Access to energy and security of supply

Lack of access to energy hampers economic and social development in many regions and is an obstacle to the achievement of social, environmental and economic progress worldwide. Access to reliable, affordable commercial energy provides the basis for heat, light, mobility, communications and agricultural and industrial capacity in modern society. Energy is important for development as is demonstrated in consumption trends . notably, the increase foreseen in energy demand, for example the International Energy Agency estimates an increase of 60% by 2030, (World Energy Outlook, 2002). This increasing demand will have to be met by a complex mix of energy resources in order to meet a wide variety of
energy needs, whilst considering environmental Overview and other constraints. Meeting societyfs needs, aspirations and expectations for a better life will require growing supplies of reliable, affordable and lower-carbon energy.

Multi-Energy Systems

We need to continue to keep all energy options open and to develop, as appropriate, all primary energy supplies. Keeping all energy options
available will enable every nation to tailor its approach to addressing energy needs and climate change in the most efficient way, in alignment with their respective resource base and long-term strategic development objectives. One critical tool in the arsenal is energy efficiency, as it is a critical component of any comprehensive sustainable energy strategy and can make a significant and short-term impact on emissions of greenhouse gases. Energy efficiency needs to be promoted among producers and consumers of energy through the establishment of appropriate fiscal and regulatory frameworks. However more action is needed to turn ideas into action. Globally everyone needs to identify opportunities to
reduce their consumption of energy and improve efficiency. Many countries and companies are doing exactly that . and some will be left behind
if they do not also rise to the occasion.

At the same time it does not help to address only one element of the energy sector. Energy supply and use pose political and economic issues related to economic growth, security, employment, investment, climate change, environmental impacts and trade. Consequently, energy challenges should be addressed through integrated policies reflecting a broad range of issues including development priorities and needs; social conditions and
aspirations; trade rules; environmental policies; and the promotion of innovation, together with technology development and transfer policies
and energy efficiency. Climate change is a multifaceted and broad-based issue and thus it is particularly important that climate change issues are integrated into all relevant policies.

The long road ahead

Let us not fail to fully understand the magnitude of the challenge facing us. The challenge that we face is bigger than one country or company
and the evolution of energy systems will require considerable time and expense in order to alter energy and raw material inputs, operations and
products and to develop and introduce technological innovations, as well as to establish the infrastructure to support them. Companies and governments should take these long-term considerations and realities into account, and strive for consistency and predictability over the corresponding time span.

Maintaining and growing the energy supplies required to provide access to those lacking it and to meet future demand with reduced environmental impacts will require significant investment in the long term in every element of the supply and use chain. This investment is estimated by the IEA to be US$ 20 trillion by 2030. Mobilising the required energy investments will be a key challenge. In countries with limited capital, and specifically for the leastdeveloped countries, the role of Foreign Direct Investment should be complemented by Inter-Governmental Organisation funds, Official
Development Assistance (ODA), and local private funds. Through such innovative financing solutions, project creation and implementation benefit from a variety of sources of funds, which are mutually reinforcing, each fund being adapted to the type of investment and risks it covers.

The challenge of climate change adds an additional dimension to this issue and historical paradigms of investment in infrastructure must be challenged if we are to meet the challenges of ridding the world of energy starvation through a cleaner and lower carbon-emitting path. In
adopting a holistic approach to this value chain there is a significant opportunity for the public and private sector to work together to build lower
carbon-emitting energy infrastructure and then use it for economic, social and environmental development.

Energy for sustainable development will depend on the more widespread use of existing efficient technologies as well as the development, commercialisation and deployment of innovative and lower-carbon technologies. To expand and take advantage of the full potential of energy
options, all relevant stakeholders should allocate resources to research and development of new technologies all along the energy chain. The energy sector dedicates substantial resources to technology advancement and the development of innovation but we also need to be a partner in
defining mechanisms to identify, develop, commercialise and transfer technologies on a global scale. In order to accelerate the development and deployment of technologies, large demonstration or pilot activities should be considered in order to develop capacity and to increase the rate of uptake of key technologies. While fossil fuels will continue to play an important role in energy supply in the decades to come, every effort must be made to diversify the energy mix. Urgent action is required to further diversify energy supply by developing advanced, cleaner, more efficient, affordable and costeffective energy technologies such as renewables (including large-scale hydropower) and nuclear power. In addition, quantum leaps need to be made in the implementation of energy efficiency measures. Further, in areas were water is scarce, the application of technologies such as dry cooling, needs to be employed. The publication of the data in this report can provide the foundation for sustainable energy planning as we move forward

This transformation, as well as meeting the need for skills to build and operate plant is critical. Education is essential to supporting research and facilitating efficient deployment and operation of energy technologies. Furthermore, education is important for helping users to make informed energy choices.

Conclusion

We know that the energy sector is a major contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions and in order to meet the challenges of meeting the rising demand for energy whilst reducing greenhouse gas emissions and adapting to the impacts of a changing climate, global efforts will be required. This has been the subject of the recently released WEC report on Energy and Climate Change. The efforts in this area require concerted action which replicates successes around the world and through public-private partnerships which leverage resources and channel international effort. The energy sector will not only be a key implementer of global policy, but will also contribute through innovation and the development and deployment of new technologies. It is recognised that there is no technological gsilver bulleth but that all technologies are important to assess, including renewables and clean-coal technologies. In addition, technologies that result in significant cuts in greenhouse gases, such as nuclear
power, have a crucial role to play. Carbon markets also have an important role to play and should be encouraged and normalised as far as possible.

In conclusion, I am a firm believer in the words of an eighteenth century British MP Edmund Burke, who said gNobody made a greater mistake than he who did nothing because he could only do a littleh. We all play a vital role in contributing towards global imperatives and we need to define novel ways in which to leverage resources in meeting the challenges we collectively face.

Valli Moosa
Chairman of Eskom Holdings Limited


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