Hall,C., Tharakan,P., Hallock,J., Cleveland,C. and Jefferson,M.(2003): Hydrocarbons and the evolution of human culture. Nature, 426, 318-322.


『Most of the progress in human culture has required the exploitation of energy resources. About 100 years ago, the major source of energy shifted from recent solar to fossil hydrocarbons, including liquid and gaseous petroleum. Technology has generally led to a greater use of hydrocarbon fuels for most human activities, making civilization vulnerable to decreases in supply. At this time our knowledge is not sufficient for us to choose between the different estimates of, for example, resources of conventional oil.』

How long can we depend on oil?
Quality of petroleum
Quantity of petroleum
Pattern of use over time
Energy and political costs of getting oil
Our need to reduce supply uncertainties
The future: other technologies