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 We thank Brathwaite et al. for starting a very useful debate about what role, if any, coal should play in future energy transitions. Expanding upon their piece, we question that a coal-based economy, in which energy production for both electricity and transport comes from coal, can meet the energy security needs of the United States and other countries.

keywords: Clean coal; carbon capture and sequestration; Coal-to-liquids』

1. Introduction
2. Efficiency implications
3. Affordability and price implications
4. Availability and dependence implications
5. Stewardship and sustainability
6. Conclusion