Hook(両方のoの頭に¨),M. and Aleklett,K.(2010): Trends in U.S. recoverable coal supply estimates and future production outlooks. Natural Resources Research, 19(3), 189-208.


 The geological coal resource of the U.S. is abundant and proved coal reserves are listed as the world's largest. However, the reserves are unevenly distributed and located in a small number of states, giving them major influence over future production. A long history of coal mining provides detailed time series of production and reserve estimates, which can be used to identify historical trends. In reviewing the historical evolution of coal reserves, one can state that the trend here does not point toward any major increases in available recoverable reserves; rather the opposite is true due to restrictions and increased focus on environmental impacts from coal extraction. Future coal production will not be entirely determined by what is geologically available, but rather by the fraction of that amount that is practically recoverable. Consequently, the historical trend toward reduced recoverable amounts is likely to continue into the future, with even stricter regulations imposed by increased environmental concern. Long-term outlooks can be created in many ways, but ultimately the production must be limited by recoverable volumes since coal is a finite resource. The geologic amounts of coal are of much less importance to future production than the practically recoverable volumes. The geological coal supply might be vast, but the important question is how large the share that can be extracted under present restrictions are and how those restrictions will develop in the future. Production limitations might therefore appear much sooner than previously expected.

Key Words: U.S. coal reserves; future production; peak coal.』

 Aim of this study
Coal resources, reserves, and recoverable volumes
 What matters for future coal production?
 Technological progress and future coal prices
 Reassessment of coal in the light of future energy policies
Evolution of U.S. recoverable coal reserves
 Historical trends in U.S. recoverable coal reserves
Modeling future production
 Depletion rate investigations
Future production outlooks