Offer,G.J., Howey,D., Contestabile,M., Clague,R. and Brandon,N.P.(2010): Comparative analysis of battery electric, hydrogen fuel cell and hybrid vehicles in a future sustainable road transport system. Energy Policy, 38, 24-29.


 This paper compares battery electric vehicles (BEV) to hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (PCEV) and hydrogen fell cell plug-in hybrid vehicles (FCHEV). Qualitative comparisons of technologies and infrastructural requirements, and quantitative comparisons of the lifecycle cost of the powertrain over 100,000 mile are undertaken, accounting for capital and fuel costs. A common vehicle platform is assumed. The 2030 scenario is discussed and compared to a conventional gasoline-fuelled internal combustion engine (ICE) powertrain. A comprehensive sensitivity analysis shows that in 2030 FCEVs could achieve lifecycle cost parity with conventional gasoline vehicles. However, both the BEV and FCHEV have significantly lower lifecycle costs. In the 2030 scenario, powertrain lifecycle costs of FCEVs range from $7360 to $22,580, whereas those for BEVs range from $6460 to $11,420 and FCHEVs, from $4310 to $12,540. All vehicle platforms exhibit significant cost sensitivity to powertrain capital cost. The BEV and FCHEV are relatively insensitive to electricity costs but the FCHEV and FCV are sensitive to hydrogen cost. The BEV and FCHEV are reasonably similar in lifecycle cost and one may offer an advantage over the other depending on driving patterns. A key conclusion is that the best path for future development of FCEVs is the FCHEV.

Keywords: Fuel cell vehicle; Electric vehicle; Hybrid vehicle』

1. Introduction
2. The technology
3. Cost prediction analysis
 3.1. Capital cost
 3.2. Running cost
 3.3. End-of life cost
 3.4. Results and discussion
  3.4.1. Powertrain technology options
  3.4.2. BEV range
  3.4.3. Other considerations and sensitivities
4. Conclusions