Delucchi,M.A. and Jacobson,M.Z.(2011): Providing all global energy with wind, water, and solar power, Part II: Reliability, system and transmission costs, and policies. Energy Policy, 39, 1170-1190.


@This is Part II of two papers evaluating the feasibility of providing all energy for all purposes (electric power, transportation, and heating/cooling), everywhere in the world, from wind, water, and the sun (WWS). In Part I, we described the prominent renewable energy plans that have been proposed and discussed the characteristics of WWS energy systems, the global demand for and availability of WWS energy, quantities and areas required for WWS infrastructure, and supplies of critical materials. Here, we discus methods of addressing the variability of WWS energy to ensure that power supply reliably matches demand (including interconnecting geographically dispersed resources, using hydroelectricity, using demand-response management, storing electric power on site, over-sizing peak generation capacity and producing hydrogen with the excess, storing electric power in vehicle batteries, and forecasting weather to project energy supplies), the economics of WWS generation and transmission, the economics of WWS use in transportation, and policy measures needed to enhance the viability of a WWS system. We find that the cost of energy in a 100“ WWS will be similar to the cost today. We conclude that barriers to a 100“ conversion to WWS power worldwide are primarily social and political, not technological or even economic.

Keywords: Wind power; Solar power; Water powerx

1. Variability and reliability in a 100“ WWS energy system in all regions of the world
@1.1. Interconnect dispersed generators
@1.2. Use complementary and non-variable sources to help supply match demand
@1.3. Use gsmarth demand-response management to shift flexible loads to better match available WWS generation
@1.4. Store electric power at the site of generation
@1.5. Oversize WWS generation capacity to match demand better and to produce H2
@1.6. Store electric power at points of end use, in EV batteries
@1.7. Forecast weather to plan energy supply needs better
@1.8. Summary
2. The cost of WWS electricity generation and gsupergridh transmission and decentralized V2G storage
@2.1. Cost of generation and conventional transmission
@2.2. Cost of extra-long-distance transmission
@2.3. V2G decentralized storage
3. The economics of the use of WWS power in transportation
4. Policy issues and needs
5. Technical findings and conclusions
Appendix A.1. Estimates of $/kw capital costs and total amortized + operating $/kwh costs for various generating technologies
@A.1.a. Discussion of estimates based on the EIA reference-case parameters
Appendix A.2. The cost of long-distance electricity transmission
@A.2.a. Separate estimates of the cost of the transmission lines and the cost of station equipment
@A.2.b. Estimates of the total transmission-system cost
@A.2.c. Discussion of results
@A.2.d. Note on cost of undersea transmission
Appendix A.3. The cost of using electric-vehicle batteries for distributed electricity storage (gvehicle-to-gridh)