Jacobson,M.Z. and Delucchi,M.A.(2011): Providing all global energy with wind, water, and solar power, Part I: Technologies, energy resources, quantities and areas of infrastructure, and materials. Energy Policy, 39, 1154-1169.

『風力・水力・太陽光で全世界のエネルギーを賄う 第1部:技術・エネルギー資源・インフラの量と面積・原材料』

 Climate change, pollution, and energy insecurity are among the greatest problems of our time. Addressing them requires major changes in our energy infrastructure. Here, we analyze the feasibility of providing worldwide energy for all purposes (electric power, transportation, heating/cooling, etc.) from wind, water, and sunlight (WWS). In Part I, we discuss WWS energy system characteristics, current and future energy demand, availability of WWS resources, numbers of WWS devices, and area and material requirements. In Part II, we address variability, economics, and policy of WWS energy. We estimate that 〜3,800,000 5MW wind turbines, 〜49,000 300 MW concentrated solar plants, 〜40,000 300 MW solar PV power plants, 〜1.7 billion 3 kW rooftop PV systems, 〜5350 100 MW geothermal power plants, 〜270 new 1300 MW hydroelectric power plants, 〜720,000 0.75 MW wave devices, and 〜490,000 1 MW tidal turbines can power a 2030 WWS would that uses electricity and electrolytic hydrogen for all purposes. Such a WWS infrastructure reduces world power demand by 30% and requires only 〜0.41% and 〜0.59% more of the world's land for footprint and spacing, respectively. We suggest producing all new energy with WWS by 2030 and replacing the pre-existing energy by 2050. Barriers of the plan are primarily social and political, not technological or economic. The energy cost in a WWS world should be similar to that today.

Keywords: Wind power; Solar power; Water power』

1. Introduction
2. Clean, low-risk, sustainable energy systems
 2.1. Evaluation of long-term energy systems: why we choose WWS power
 2.2. Characteristics of electricity-generating WWS technologies
  2.2.1. Wind
  2.2.2. Wave
  2.2.3. Geothermal
  2.2.4. Hydroelectricity
  2.2.5. Tidal
  2.2.6. Solar PV
  2.2.7. CSP
 2.3. Use of WWS power for transportation
 2.4. Use of WWS power for heating and cooling
3. Energy resources needed and available
4. Quantities and areas of plants and devices required
5. Material resources
 5.1. Wind power
 5.2. Solar power
 5.3. Electric vehicles
6. Summary of technical findings and conclusions
Appendix A
 A.1. The economics of nuclear power
 A.2. Notes to Table 2
  A.2.1. TW power in 2030 (fossil-fuel case)
  A.2.2. Electrified fraction
  A.2.3. Residential sector
  A.2.4. Commercial sector
  A.2.5. Industrial sector
  A.2.6. Transport sector
  A.2.7. Non-electrified energy services
  A.2.8. End-use energy/work w.r.t. to fossil fuel
  A.2.9. Upstream factor
  A.2.10. EHCM factor
  A.2.11. TW power in 2030 (WWS case)