CO2 emissions reduction, renewable energy deployment and energy efficiency are three main energy/environmental goals, particularly in Europe. Their relevance has led to the implementation of support schemes in these realms. Their coexistence may lead to overlaps, synergies and conflicts between them. The aim of this paper is to analyse the interactions between energy efficiency measures and renewable energy promotion, whereas previous analyses have focused on the interactions between emissions trading schemes (ETS) and energy efficiency measures and ETS and renewable energy promotion schemes. Furthermore, the analysis in this paper transcends the “certificate” debate (i.e., tradable green and white certificates) and considers other instruments, particularly feed-in tariffs for renewable electricity. The goal is to identify positive and negative interactions between energy efficiency and renewable electricity promotion and to assess whether the choice of specific instruments and design elements within those instruments affects the results of the interactions.
Keywords: Energy efficiency; Renewable energy; Interactions』
2. Methodology and main assumptions
3. Linking ETS, RES-E and EE support schemes: instruments, assessment criteria and variables
3.1. Instruments for the promotion of ETS, RES-E and EE
3.2. Assessment criteria and variables
4. A general analysis of the interactions between the instruments: A comparison of scenarios
5. Do different support schemes lead to different interaction results?
6. Do different design elements in RES-E instruments lead to different interaction results?
6.1. Adding RES-E support to EE support
6.2. Adding EE policies to RES-E support