Scarlat,N. and Dallemand,J.-F.(2011): Recent developments of biofuels/bioenergy sustainability certification: A global overview. Energy Policy, 39, 1630-1646.


 The objective of this paper is to provide a review on the latest developments on the main initiatives and approaches for the sustainability certification for biofuels and/or bioenergy. A large number of national and international initiatives lately experienced rapid development in the view of the biofuels and bioenergy targets announced in the European Union, United States and other countries worldwide. The main certification initiatives are analysed in detail, including certification schemes for crops used as feedstock for biofuels, the various initiatives in the European Union, United States and globally, to cover biofuels and/or biofuels production and use. Finally, the possible way forward for biofuel certification is discussed. Certification has the potential to influence positively direct environmental and social impact of bioenergy production. Key recommendations to ensure sustainability of biofuels/bioenergy through certification include the need of an international approach and further harmonisation, combined with additional measures for global monitoring and control. The effects of biofuels/bioenergy production on indirect land use change (ILUC) is still very uncertain; addressing the unwanted ILUC requires sustainable land use planning and adequate monitoring tools such as remote sensing, regardless of the end-use of the product.

Keywords: Bioenergy; Certification; Sustainability』

1. Introduction
2. European Union sustainability requirements
 2.1. EU biofuel sustainability criteria
 2.2. Sustainability requirements for the use of biomass sources for bioenergy
3. Certification initiatives for crops used as feedstock for biofuels
 3.1. Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil
 3.2. Roundtable for Responsible Soy Production
 3.3. Better Sugarcane Initiative
4. European initiatives for biofuel certification
 4.1. Renewable Transport Fuels Obligation
 4.2. Sustainable Production of Biomass - The Netherlands
 4.3. International Sustainability and Carbon Certification
 4.4. CEN standard for sustainability produced biomass for energy applications
5. International biofuels certification initiatives
 5.1. Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels
 5.2. United States Renewable Fuels Standard
 5.3. The California Low Carbon Fuel Standard
 5.4. The Council on Sustainable Biomass Production
 5.5. Global Bioenergy Partnership
 5.6. ISO/PC 248 sustainability criteria for bioenergy
6. Biofuel certification: general perspectives
 6.1. General requirements
 6.2. Environmental aspects
 6.3. Greenhouse gas emissions
 6.4. Socio-economic aspects
 6.5. Monitoring and reporting requirements
7. Biofuel certification: the possible way forward
 7.1. Limitations and drawbacks for biofuels certification
 7.2. Competition for land
 7.3. Indirect effects
 7.4. Chain-of-custody
 7.5. Implementation and control
 7.6. International approach
8. Conclusions and recommendations