Kuleshov,V.N.(2011): Manganese deposits: Communication 2. Major epochs and phases of manganese accumulation in the Earth's history. Lithology and Mineral Resources, 46(6), 546-565.


 Accumulation of manganiferous rocks in the history of the Earth's lithosphere evolution began not later than the end of the Middle Archean. Primary manganese sediments were accumulated at that time in shallow-water sedimentation basins with the active participation of organic matter. The concentration of Mn in the primary sediments usually did not reach economic values. The formation of genuine manganese ores is related to later processes of the transformation of primary ores - diagenesis, catagenesis, metamorphism, and retrograde diagenesis. Types of basins of manganese ore sedimentation and character of processes of the formation of manganese sediments during the Earth's shell evolution changed appreciably and correlated with the general evolution of paleocontinents. Major periods, epochs, and phases of manganese ore genesis are defined. At the early stages of lithosphere formation (Archean-Proterozoic), manganese was deposited in basins commonly confined to the central part of Western Gondwana and western part of Eastern Gondwana, as well as the western part of the Ur paleocontinent. Basins of manganese ore sedimentation were characterized by the ferruginous-siliceous, carbonaceous-clayey, and carbonaceous-carbonate-clayey composition. The Early-Middle Paleozoic epoch of manganiferous sediment accumulation was characterized by the presence of several small sedimentation basins with active manifestation of volcanic and hydrothermal activity. Since the formation of Pangea in the Late Paleozoic until its breakup, accumulation of Mn was closely associated with processes of diagenesis and active participation of the oxidized organic matter.』

Major periods and epochs of manganese accumulation in the Earth's history
 The Archean metallogenic period
 Phanerozoic metallogenic period
 The Meso-Cenozoic manganese ore epoch (T-Pg)
Evolution of manganese ore genesis in the Earth's history

Fig. 1. Distribution of Mn reserves and resources in differentage rocks of the Earth’s lithosphere. (1) Reserves; (2) resources; (3) Archean manganiferous rocks; (4) major metallogenic phases of the accumulation of manganese rocks and ores: (1) Early Proterozoic, (2) Middle Proterozoic, (3) Late Proterozoic, (4) Early-Middle Paleozoic, (5) Late Paleozoic, (6) Mesozoic, (7) Late Mesozoic-Early Cenozoic; (5) major biotic events in the Phanerozoic (Alekseev, 1989, 1998).

Fig. 2. Development of manganese rocks and ores in the Archean and Early Proterozoic in Pangea 0.3 Ga ago. Based on (Rogers, 1996). (1-4) Age of rocks in continental blocks, Ga: (1) 1.2, (2) 1.5-2, (3) 2.5, (4) 3 or more; (5) boundary of Western Gondwana; (6) field of Archean manganese rocks and ores; (7) positions of Early Proterozoic manganese deposits; (8) field of Early Proterozoic sedimentation with manganese ore specialization. Latin letter designations: (AL) Aldan; (AR) Aravalli; (AN/AC) Anabar /Angara; (BA/UK) Baltia/Ukraine; (BH) Bhandara (Bastar); (BR) Brazil (Guapore); (BU) Bundelhand; (CA) Central Arabia; (CK) Congo/Kasai; (DH) Dharwar (Western and Eastern); (DM) Western Dronning Maud Land; (EA) Eastern Australia; (GA) Gavler; (GU) Guayana; (HE) Herne; (NT) terranes including the Archean blocks of North Africa; (KA) Kaapvaal; (KI) Kimberley; (KZ) Kazakhstan; (MA) Madagascar; (NA) North Atlantic (including Nain, Greenland, and Levisian); (NAS) PanAfrican crust of the Nubian.Arabiann Shield; (NC) North Chinese (SinoKorean); (NP) Napier; (PI) Pilbara; (RA) Rae; (RP) Rio de la Plata; (SC) South Chines (Yangtse); (SF) San Franciso (including Salvador); (SI) Singbhum; (SL) Slave; (SU) Superior; (TA) Tarim; (TZ) Tansania; (VE) Vestfold; (WA) West Africa; (WN)Western Nile; (YI) Ylgarn; (ZI) Zimbabwe.

Fig. 3. Manganese rock terranes during the existence of Atlantica. Modified after (Rogers, 1996). (1) Boundaries of paleocontinents; (2) domains of manganese deposits developed after gondites and ampelites; (3) boundaries of manganese deposits associated with the ferruginous.siliceous rocks; (4) major manganese deposits developed after gondites and ampelites; (5) major manganese deposits associated with the ferruginous.siliceous rocks.

Fig. 4. Locations of manganese rocks and ores in the Late Proterozoic supercontinent Rodinia. Outlines of paleocontinents are shown as of 900 Ma ago, according to (Bogdanova et al., 2009). (1) Inferred shelf margins; (2) major collisional orogens of the Rodinia breakup period; (3, 4) basins with manganese rock formation in the Middle and Late Proterozoic, respectively; (5) boundary of the major manganese ore zone in the Middle and Late Proterozoic.
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